Chemical elements
  Nitrogen
    Isotopes
    Energy
    Nitrogen Cycle
    Production
    Application
    Physical Properties
    Chemical Properties
      Nitrogen Chloride
      Nitrogen Iodide
      Monochloramine
      Nitrosyl Fluoride
      Nitrosyl Chloride
      Nitrosyl Bromide
      Nitryl Fluoride
      Nitryl Chloride
      Di-imide
      Nitramide
      Nitrohydroxylamine
      Hyponitrous acid
      Nitrous Oxide
      Nitric Oxide
      Nitrogen Trioxide
      Nitrogen Tetroxide
      Nitrogen Pentoxide
      Nitroso-nitrogen Trioxide
      Nitrous Acid
      Pernitric Acid
      Sulphur Nitride
      Pentasulphur Dinitride
    Ammonia
    Hydroxylamine
    Hydrazine
    Azoimide
    Nitric Acid

Monochloramine, NH2Cl






Gattermann came to the conclusion that the chlorination of ammonia occurs in three stages:

  1. NH3 + Cl2 = NH2Cl (monochloramine) + HCl,
  2. NH2Cl + Cl2 = NHCl2 (dichloramine) + HCl,
  3. NHCl2 + Cl2 = NCl3 (trichloramine) + HCl;


but it was not found possible to isolate either mono- or di-chloramine by this method. Raschig,5 however, prepared monochloramine by mixing dilute equimolecular solutions of ammonia and sodium hypochlorite, and distilling the mixture at low temperatures in a vacuum:

NH3 + NaOCl = NH2Cl + NaOH.

An unstable yellow liquid is obtained which can be solidified into colourless unstable crystals with melting-point -66° C.

Monochloramine is also produced by the hydrolysis of potassium cliloramino-sulphonate with dilute mineral acids:

NHCl.SO3K + H2O = NH2Cl + KHSO4.

Monochloramine is decomposed by alkalies with the formation of ammonia and nitrogen:

(i) 3NH2Cl + 3KOH = NH3 + N2 + 3KCl + 3H2O,

(ii) 3NH2Cl + 2NH3 = N2 + 3NH4Cl;

but at the same time some of the ammonia reacts with the chloramine to produce a small amount of hydrazine hydrochloride:

(iii) NH2Cl + NH3 = N2H4.HCl.

Monochloramine reacts with potassium iodide to form nitrogen iodide.


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